Professor Christopher J Hall
Professor of Applied Linguistics - REF Impact Case Study Lead
BA (Newcastle), MA (York), PhD (Southern California), FHEA
I started my life in linguistics at Newcastle University as a student of English Language and subsequently did an MA in Language at the University of York. After completing my PhD in linguistics at USC in Los Angeles in 1987, I moved south to Mexico, where I lived and worked for 20 years. During my time at the Universidad de las Américas Puebla (UDLAP), I developed with Peter Ecke an influential model of second and third language vocabulary learning (the Parasitic Model). I also taught in the MA in Applied Linguistics and served as Head of the Department of Languages and Director of Research and Postgraduate Studies for the School of Humanities.
In 2007 I joined the subject area of Languages and Linguistics at York St John University, where I conduct research on Global Englishes, teach at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels, and supervise postgraduate researchers. I’m especially interested in social and cognitive perspectives on English as an international language and the broader issue of how language and languages are conceptualised by general and applied linguists, teachers, and laypeople. I’ve (co-)authored and (co-)edited several books, including Ontologies of English (CUP, 2020), which was shortlisted for the 2021 BAAL Book Prize. With Rachel Wicaksono, my co-editor on that volume, I also co-created the open-access Changing Englishes online course for teachers at www.changingenglishes.online.
I teach Psycholinguistics to languages and linguistics students at the undergraduate level, and Language Myths for students in the MA programmes in TESOL and Language & Social Justice.
I also chair the staff-student organising committee of the Languages and Linguistics Student Colloquium Series, a guest lecture series for students.
I teach on the Psycholinguistics undergraduate module and the Language Myths postgraduate module.
Before joining York St John University, I conducted empirical research on the development of the L2 and L3 mental lexicon, with Peter Ecke (University of Arizona). This led to the development of the Parasitic Model of vocabulary learning, which continues to be influential in studies of cross-linguistic influence in Second Language Acquisition.
At York St John University I have shifted my attention to the broader social and cognitive status of non-native Englishes, approaching the issues from the perspectives of Usage-Based Linguistics and Global Englishes. Aside from several theoretical and conceptual papers, I’ve worked over the past few years on a couple of corpus-based analyses and a series of more qualitative studies. My current project, with colleagues in Germany and China, is concerned with how to trigger reconceptualisations of English in trainee English teachers, and was supported by the Applying Linguistics fund of the British Association for Applied Linguistics.
Publications and Conferences
Cunningham, C. and Hall, C. J. (Eds) (2021). Vulnerabilities, challenges and risks in applied linguistics. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Hall, C. J. and Wicaksono, R. (Eds) (2020). Ontologies of English. Conceptualising the language for learning, teaching, and assessment.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hall, C. J., Smith. P. H. and Wicaksono, R. (2017). Mapping applied linguistics. A guide for students and practitioners (2nd edn). London and New York: Routledge.
Merrison, A. J., Griffiths, P., Bloomer, A. and Hall, C. J. (2014). Introducing language in use (2nd edn). London and New York: Routledge.
Hall, C. J., Smith. P. H. & Wicaksono, R. (2011). Mapping applied linguistics. A guide for students and practitioners. London and New York: Routledge.
Hall, C. J. (2005). An introduction to language and linguistics. Breaking the language spell. London and New York: Continuum.
Hall, C. J. (1992). Morphology and mind. A unified approach to explanation in linguistics. London and New York: Routledge. [Re-issued 2014 in the Routledge Library Editions: Linguistics series.]
Cunningham, C. and Hall, C. J. (2021). Introduction. In Cunningham, C. and Hall, C. J. (eds), Vulnerabilities, challenges and risks in applied linguistics. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Hall, C. J. and Cunningham, C. (2021). Afterword. In Cunningham, C. and Hall, C. J. (eds), Vulnerabilities, challenges and risks in applied linguistics. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Hall, C. J. (2021). Incorporating ontological reflection into teacher education about English for global learners. A rationale and some guiding principles. In Bayyurt, Y. (ed.), Bloomsbury World Englishes, Volume 3: Pedagogies (pp. 11-26). London: Bloomsbury.
Hall, C. J. (2020). An ontological framework for English. In Hall, C. J. and Wicaksono, R. (eds), Ontologies of English. Conceptualising the language for learning, teaching, and assessment (pp. 13-36). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wicaksono, R. and Hall, C. J. (2020). Using ontologies of English. In Hall, C. J. and Wicaksono, R. (eds), Ontologies of English. Conceptualising the language for learning, teaching, and assessment (pp. 368-375). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hall, C. J. and Wicaksono, R. (2020). Approaching ontologies of English. In Hall, C. J. and Wicaksono, R. (eds), Ontologies of English. Conceptualising the language for learning, teaching, and assessment (pp. 3-12). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hall, C. J. (2018). The psycholinguistics of English. In Seargeant, P., Hewings, A. and Pihlaja, S. (eds). Routledge handbook of English Language Studies (pp. 406-419). London: Routledge.
Hall, C. J. (2018). Cognitive perspectives on English as a Lingua Franca. In Jenkins, J., Baker, W. and Dewey, M. (eds). Routledge handbook of English as a Lingua Franca (pp. 74-84). London: Routledge.
Hall, C. J. and Reyes, A. (2009). Cross-linguistic influence in L2 verb frames: the effects of word familiarity and language proficiency. In Benati, A. and Roehr, K. (eds), Issues in second language proficiency (pp. 24-44). London: Continuum.
Hall, C. J. and Ecke, P. (2003). Parasitism as a default mechanism in vocabulary acquisition. In J. Cenoz, B. Hufeisen and U. Jessner (eds). The multilingual lexicon (pp. 71-85). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Hall, C. J. (2000). Prefixation, suffixation and circumfixation. In G. Booij, Lehmann, C. and Mugdan, J. (eds), Morphology. An international handbook on inflection and word formation, vol. 1 (pp 535-545). Berlin and New York: De Gruyter.
Hall, C. J. (1997). Palabras concretas, palabras abstractas y rasgos categoriales en el léxico mental bilingüe [Concrete words, abstract words and categorial features in the bilingual mental lexicon]. In R. Barriga and P. M. Butragueño (eds), Varia lingüística y literaria: 50 años del CELL, Tomo 1. Lingüística (pp. 363-381). Mexico City: Colegio de México Press.
Hall, C. J. (1997). La explicación en sintaxis y morfología formales: Papeles contrastivos para la psicolingüística [Explanation in formal syntax and morphology: Contrasting roles for psycholinguistics]. In M. Pool (ed.), Estudios de lingüística formal (pp. 113-137). Mexico City: Colegio de México Press.
Hall, C. J. (1996). La estrategia parasítica: Un modelo psicolingüístico del aprendizaje de vocabulario [The parasitic strategy: A psycholinguistic model of vocabulary learning]. In S. Cuevas and J. Haidar (eds) La imaginación y la intelegencia en el lenguaje: Homenaje a Roman Jakobson(pp. 229-238). Mexico City: INAH.
Hall, C. J. (1988). Integrating diachronic and processing principles in explaining the suffixing preference. In J. A. Hawkins (ed.) Explaining Language Universals (pp. 321-349). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Publications and Conferences continued
Ecke, P. and Hall, C. J. (2021). Bilingual aspects of the Ontogenesis Model: Parasitic connections at all levels of representation? (Commentary on Bordag et al., 2021). Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S1366728921000675.
Ecke, P. and Hall, C. J. (2021). The Parasitic Model: Lexical acquisition and its impact on morphosyntactic transfer (Commentary on Schwartz and Sprouse, 2021). Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. http://doi.org/10.1075/lab.20088.eck.
Hall, C. J. and Cunningham, C. (2020). Educators’ beliefs about English and languages beyond English: from ideology to ontology and back again. Linguistics and Education, 57, 1-14.
Hall, C. J., Joyce, J. and Robson, C. (2017). Investigating the lexico-grammatical resources of a non-native user of English: the case of can and could in email requests. Applied Linguistics Review, 8, 1, 35-59.
Hall, C. J., Wicaksono, R., Liu, S., Qian, Y. and Xu, X. (2017). Exploring teachers’ ontologies of English. Monolithic conceptions of grammar in a group of Chinese teachers. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 27, 1, 87-109.
Ecke, P. and Hall, C. J. (2014). The Parasitic Model of L2 and L3 vocabulary acquisition: evidence from naturalistic and experimental studies. Fórum Linguístico, 11, 3, 360-372.
Hall, C. J. (2014). Moving beyond accuracy: from tests of English to tests of ‘Englishing’. ELT Journal, 68, 4, 376-385.
Hall, C. J. (2013). Cognitive contributions to plurilithic views of English and other languages. Applied Linguistics, 34, 211-231.
Hall, C. J., Schmidtke, D. and Vickers, J. (2013). Countability in world Englishes. World Englishes, 32, 1, 1-22.
Hall, C. J., Wicaksono, R., Liu, S., Qian, Y. and Xu, X. (2013). English reconceived: Raising teachers' awareness of English as a ‘plurilithic’ resource through an online course. British Council ELT Research Papers, 13–05.
Ecke, P. and Hall, C. J. (2013). Tracking tip-of-the-tongue states in a multilingual speaker: Evidence of attrition or instability in lexical systems? International Journal of Bilingualism, 17, 6, 734-751.
Hall, C. J., Smith, P. H. and Wicaksono, R. (2012). Mapping applied linguistics from the bottom up: A conversation. ELT Research, 26, 24-26.
Hall, C. J., Newbrand, D., Ecke, P., Sperr. U., Marchand, V. and Hayes, L. (2009). Learners’ implicit assumptions about syntactic frames in new L3 words: The role of cognates, typological proximity and L2 status. Language Learning, 59, 1, 153-202.
Sills, R. and Hall, C. J. (2005). Cambios léxicos en el véneto de Chipilo, Puebla: una perspectiva psicolingüística [Lexical change in the Veneto of Chipilo, Puebla: A psycholinguistic perspective]. Lingüística Mexicana, II, 2, 277-293.
Hall, C. J. (2002). The automatic cognate form assumption: Evidence for the Parasitic Model of vocabulary development. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 40, 69-87.
Hall, C. J. (2001). Lenguaje, mente y cultura: Reflexiones sobre las fronteras lingüísticas y la enseñanza de idiomas en el umbral del siglo XXI [Language, mind and culture: Reflections on linguistic borders and language teaching at the threshold of the 21st century]. Estudios de Lingüística Aplicada, 33, 13-30.
Ecke, P. and Hall, C. J. (2000). Lexikalische Fehler in Deutsch als Drittsprache: Translexikalischer Einfluß auf 3 Ebenen der Mentalen Reprasentation [Lexical errors in German as a third language: Crosslexical influence at three levels of mental representation]. Deutsch als Fremdsprache, 37, 1: 30-36.
Hall, C. J. (2000). El léxico mental: El diccionario detrás del diccionario [The mental lexicon: The dictionary behind the dictionary]. Morphé 19-20, 95-112.
Hall, C. J. (2000). Publication trends in MEXTESOL Journal, 1994-1999. MEXTESOL Journal, 23, 4, 51-68.
Nelson, G. and Hall, C. J. (1999). Complimenting in Mexican Spanish: Developing grammatical and pragmatic competence. Spanish Applied Linguistics, 3, 1, 91-121.
Ecke, P. and Hall, C. J. (1998). Tres niveles de la representación mental: Evidencia de errores léxicos en estudiantes de un tercer idioma [Three levels of mental representation: Evidence from lexical errors in L3 learners]. Estudios de Lingüística Aplicada, 28, 15-26.
Hall, C. J. (1995). Formal linguistics and mental representation: Psycholinguistic contributions to the identification and explanation of morphological and syntactic competence. Language and Cognitive Processes, 10, 2, 169-187.
Hall, C. J. (1994). Phrase structure and the teaching of English. MEXTESOL Journal, 18, 1.
Hall, C. J. and Schultz, M. (1994). Los errores de marco sintáctico: Evidencia del Modelo Parasítario del léxico mental en un segundo idioma [Syntactic frame errors: Evidence for the Parasitic Model of the second language mental lexicon]. In Memorias del II Congreso Nacional de Lingüística, special issue of Estudios de Lingüística Aplicada, 12, 19/20, 376-389.
Hall, C. J. (1993). Who's afraid of Noam Chomsky? A tutorial review for teachers of English. MEXTESOL Journal, 16, 4.
Hall, C. J. (1986). The stem-first preference in lexical processing: A diachronic perspective. In J. Connor-Linton, C. J. Hall and M. McGinnis (eds), SCOPIL, 11: Social and Cognitive Perspectives on Language (pp. 221-248). Los Angeles: USC.
Hall, C. J. (1985). Morphology, syntax and logical form: Towards the resolution of a border conflict. In G. M. Gilligan, M. A. Mohammad and I. Roberts (eds), SCOPIL, 10: Studies in Syntax (pp. 56-72). Los Angeles: USC.
Hall, C. J. and Wicaksono, R. (2020). Changing Englishes: An interactive course for teachers (v.02.1). Online at: www.changingenglishes.online.
Hall, C. J., O’Brien, D. and the LIdIA Policy Forum (2015). Making higher education more Deaf-friendly. LIdIA Position Statement and Position Paper 01. York: York St John University. Available online at: www.yorksj.ac.uk/lidia/policy.
Hall, C. J. and Wicaksono, R. (2013). Changing Englishes: An interactive course for teachers. Online at: www.yorksj.ac.uk/changing-englishes.
Hall, C. J. (2012). Testing Englishes: Time to move from monolithic myth to plurilithic reality? IATEFL TEASIG Newsletter, 52, 19-22.
Hall, C. J. (1992). Making the right connections: Vocabulary learning and the mental lexicon. Washington D.C.: Office of Educational Research and Improvement. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 363 128).
I'm a life member and former Executive Committee member of the British Association for Applied Linguistics. From 2013 to 2021 I was Reviews Editor for BAAL News. In 2018 I was co-chair of the local organising committee for the BAAL Annual Meeting at YSJ.
In 2015 I served as a member of the National QAA Linguistics Subject Benchmark Statement Review Group.
I have peer-reviewed articles for the following journals: Applied Linguistics; Arab Journal for the Humanities; Bilingualism: Language and Cognition; Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory; International Journal of Multilingualism; Journal of English as a Lingua Franca; Journal of Pragmatics; Language and Cognitive Processes; Language Awareness; Language Learning; Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism; Linguistics and Education; Studies in Language.
I have reviewed book proposals or new editions for the following publishers: Blackwell-Wiley (New York); British Academy (London); BUAP University Press (Puebla, Mexico); Cambridge University Press; Cengage-AAUSC (Boston); Palgrave- MacMillan (London); Peter Lang (New York); Psychology Press (Hove); Routledge (London); Routledge (New York).