Dr Scott Cole
Associate Professor, Psychology
Psychology BSc, University of Liverpool
Memory and Its Disorders MSc, University of Leeds
PhD, University of Leeds
I am a Lecturer in Psychology with expertise in Cognitive Psychology and Neuropsychology. I completed my BSc in Psychology at the University of Liverpool in 2003. After some time teaching in China, I completed a Masters in Memory and its Disorders from the University of Leeds whilst working as a Rehabilitation Support Worker for the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust. After a one year period working as an Assistant Psychologist for the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust in Sussex, I returned to Leeds to complete a PhD in ‘Cognitive and mnemonic characteristics of Episodic Future Thinking’. I also spent a year as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow working at the Centre on Autobiographical Memory in Aarhus, Denmark. I joined York St John University as a Lecturer in September 2015.
1PY401 Cognition (Module Leader)
2PY405 Investigating Cognition
3PY356 Neuropsychology (Module Leader)
MPY100 Psychological Research Methods
Imagining possible future events (or Episodic Future Thinking) is a fundamental and familiar aspect of everyday life. Imagined future scenarios can range from important life events to an upcoming job one intends to complete (e.g. doing the weekly shop). In my research, I have examined how a range of groups (for example, healthy young adults, older adults and those with acquired brain injuries) imagine specific scenarios which may plausibly happen in the future. I am interested in the cognitive processes required for episodic future thinking. As well as these theoretical aspects, I am also interested in the practical applications of how humans use imagining the future to attain personal goals. My recent work suggests a link between spontaneous future thoughts and current goals. I am also interested in the consequences of impairments in episodic future thinking. My research involves collaborative links with Experimental Cognitive Psychologists, Clinical Neuropsychologists & Health Psychologists.
My expertise lies in Memory systems, specifically episodic memory and episodic future thinking, utilising experimental methods. I also have expertise in Cognitive Neuropsychology, using case-controlled designs.
British Neuropsychological Society (Member)
Experimental Psychology Society (Member)
British Psychological Society (Chartered Psychologist, CPsychol)
Fellow of the Higher Education Academy
Cole, S.N., Markostamou, I., Watson, L. A., Barzykowski, K., Ergen, I., Taylor, A. & Öner, S. (2022). Spontaneous past and future thinking about the COVID-19 pandemic across 14 countries: Effects of individual and country-level COVID-19 impact indicators. Journal of Applied Research on Memory and Cognition.
McClure, HC., & Cole, S. N. (2022). In and out of control : Spontaneous mental contrasting is only effective for personal goals unrelated to COVID-19. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Advance online publication. doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12920
Öner, S., Watson, L. A., Adıgüzel, Z., Ergen, I., Bilgin, E., Curci, A, Cole, S. N., …Roediger, H, Szpunar, K. K., Tekin, E., Under, O. (2022). Collective remembering and forecasting during the COVID-19 pandemic: How the impact of COVID-19 affected the themes and phenomenology of global and national memories across 15 countries. Memory & Cognition, Advance online publication. Doi: https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-022-01329-8.
Cole, S.N., Tubbs, P.M.C. (2022) Predictors of obsessive–compulsive symptomology: mind wandering about the past and future. Psychological Research 86, 1518–1534. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-021-01585-4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-021-01585-4
Cole, S. N., Smith, D. M., Ragan, K, Suurmond, R. & Armitage, C. J. (2021). Synthesizing Effects of Mental Simulation on Behavior Change: Systematic Review and Multilevel Meta-Analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 28, 1514–1537. doi : https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-01880-6 (link to OSF page)
Duffy, J., Cole, S. N. (2020). Functions of involuntary and voluntary future thinking: Evidence from subjective ratings. Psychological Research, 85, 1583–1601. doi: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00426-020-01338-9
Cole, S. N & Kvavilashvili, L. (2021) . Spontaneous and deliberate future thinking: a dual process account. Psychological Research. Psychological Research, 85(2), 464-479. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01262-7
Cole, S. N. and Kvavilashvili, L. (2019) Spontaneous future cognition: The past, present and future of an emerging topic. Psychological Research, 83(4), 631-650. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-019-01193-3
Hamilton, J. & Cole, S. N. (2017). Imagining possible selves across time: Characteristics of self-images and episodic thoughts. Consciousness & Cognition, 52, 9-20. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2017.04.015
Cole, S. N., & Pauly-Takacs, K. (2017) Is obesity linked with episodic memory impairment? A commentary on Cheke, Simons & Clayton (2016). The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70 (3), doi:10.1080/17470218.2016.1173075
Cole, S. N. (2017). A timely dose of theory in future thinking research. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70(2). doi: 10.1080/17470218.2016.1245347
Conway, M. A., Loveday, C. & Cole, S. N. (2016). The Remembering-Imagining System. Memory Studies, 9, 256-265. doi: 10.1177/1750698016645231
Cole, S. N., Staugaard, S., & Berntsen, D. (2016). Inducing Involuntary and Voluntary Mental Time Travel using a laboratory paradigm. Memory and Cognition, 44, 376-389. doi: 10.3758/s13421-015-0564-9
Cole, S. N., Morrison, C., Barak, O., Pauly-Takacs, K., & Conway, M. A. (2016). Amnesia and Future Thinking: Exploring the Role of Memory in the Quantity and Quality of Episodic Future Thoughts. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 206-224. doi: 10.1111/bjc.12094
Cole, S. N. & Berntsen, D. (2016). Do Future Thoughts Reflect Personal Goals? Current Concerns and Mental Time Travel into the Past and Future. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, 273-284. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2015.1044542
Cole, S. N., Fotopoulou, A., Oddy, M., Moulin, C. J. A. (2014). Implausible Future Events in a Confabulating Patient with an Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurism. Neurocase, 20, 208-224.
Cole, S. N., Morrison, C. M. & Conway, M. A. (2013). Episodic Future Thinking: Linking Neuropsychological Performance and Episodic Detail in Young and Old Adults. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 1687-1706. doi:10.1080/17470218.2012.758157
Cole, S. N., Gill, N., Conway, M. A., & Morrison, C. M. (2012). Mental Time Travel: Effects of Trial Duration on Episodic and Semantic Content. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65, 2288-2296. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2012.758157
Full-text reprints available upon request at firstname.lastname@example.org. Please include your full name and article you are interested in.
Popular Science Publications
Cole, S. N. (2013). Imagining our future…and changing it. The Psychologist, 26 (11), 840-841.
Cole, S. N. (2012). The Joy of RECs (Research Ethics Committees): The life-cycle of a National Health Service ethics application. Psychology Postgraduate Affairs Group Quarterly (British Psychological Society), 82, 26-29.
“Spontaneous future thinking: Another route to prospection”. Invited talk at Bradford University, on 11th December, 2019
“The effect of coping skills on depression, anxiety, and autobiographical memory retrieval.” Poster presented at the Special Interest Meeting in Autobiographical Memory and Psychopathology on 5-6th December, 2019.
Discussant in “Spontaneity in Future Thinking: A Forward-Looking Research Symposium”, European Society for Cognitive Psychology, Tenerife, 25-28th September, 2019.
“Perceived Functions of Involuntary and Voluntary Future Thoughts” at the Society for Applied Memory and Cognition, Cape Cod, 5-9th June, 2019
“The Science of Future Thinking”. Invited talk at the annual British Science Festival 12th September 2018 at University of Hull.
“The effects of mental simulation on behaviour” Invited Psychology Department seminar, 11th October 2018 at University of Hertfordshire and October the 24th at Swansea University.
“Candidate mechanisms underlying spontaneous future thinking: A summary of three studies”, Mind wandering and Mindfulness conference, Northumbria University, 22nd July 2018.
'Looking forward: The psychology of future thinking', British Psychological Society 'Psychology in the Pub' public event, Duke of York, York, 23rd October 2017.
'The effect of pulvinar damage on emotional processing of internally-generated past and future events', Symposium Talk, Federation of European Societies of Neuropsychology, 13-15 September 2017.
“The Effect of Pulvinar Damage on Emotional Processing of Simulated Scenes”, Symposium Talk, International Conference on Memory, 17-22nd July 2016.
“The Goal-relatedness of Voluntary and Involuntary Future Thoughts Elicited in a Laboratory Task”, Invited Symposium Talk, Biannual Congress of the Swiss Psychological Society, Geneva, September 8-9th 2015.
“The use of mental rehearsal to promote achievement of functional rehabilitation goals following acquired brain injury (ABI)” (Co-author), Poster Presentation, Neuropsychological Rehabilitation Special Interest Group of the World Federation of Neurorehabilitation (WFNR), Australia, 6-7th July 2015.
“Episodic Future Thinking: The role of current and future concerns”, Symposium Talk, International Convention of Psychological Science (an APS event), Amsterdam, 12-14 March 2015.
“Mental Time Travel: Developing a Laboratory Paradigm for Inducing both its Involuntary and Voluntary Types”, Invited Seminar Talk, Department of Psychology, University of Hull, February, 2015.
“Inducing Involuntary and Voluntary Mental Time Travel in a Laboratory Paradigm”, Talk, Great Yorkshire Memory Meeting, University of Leeds, December, 2014
“Differentiating Event Simulations: The Past, Imagined Past and Future” Poster, Social Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory, June, 2013.
“Deconstructing the Differences between Memory and Imagination” Talk, Experimental Psychology Society, Lancaster Meeting, April, 2013.
“Remembering your past to imagine your future”. ‘Three Minute Thesis’ Finalist Talk at Showcase Postgraduate Conference, University of Leeds, December, 2012.
“Exploring Subprocesses of Imagined Future Events”. Poster, International Conference on Memory, University of York, 31 July-5 August, 2011.
“The self and its role in constructing autobiographical future events”. Poster, Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory, Aarhus University, Denmark. 13- 16 June, 2010
“Autobiographical memory and its role in constructing imagined future events”. Talk, Greater Yorkshire Memory meeting, University of Hull, 4th December, 2009.
“Past and Future Confabulation: A case study of MW”. Poster Presentation, Recollection Workshop (ESRC-funded), Descarte University Paris, France. 18th December 2008. Awarded Poster Prize
“Emotion, Drives and Confabulation”, Data Blitz Presentation (Talk), Emotion Conference, International Neuropsychoanalysis Society (ESRC-funded), King’s College London, 14th December 2007.
- EEG correlates of Involuntary Memories at Encoding and Retrieval, funded by Experimental Psychology Society.
- Cognitive mechanisms underlying spontaneous future thoughts, funded by Experimental Psychology Society.